The point at which the Roman-period Lower Aqueduct — carrying water from Solomon’s Pools, south of Bethlehem, all the way to Jerusalem — enters a rock-hewn tunnel which runs beneath the ridge of Bethlehem. The original installations are nestled tightly within the curve of the modern street, protected within a stone structure and behind iron bars.
The conduit here still flowed with water into modern times and was known by locals as the “Ain” (spring) of Bethlehem. The site was rehabilitated in 1998 as part of the Bethlehem Millenium Project.
From this spot, the aqueduct tunnel runs northward under Manger Square, but it was blocked by 20th century construction. At certain points on the other side of the ridge, the channel can still be identified in some places. The system is dated by archaeologists to the Early Roman (Hasmonean) period.